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But two more winds – Eurus (εὖρος) from the east and Zephyrus (ζέφυρος) from the west – were added soon enough.The etymology of the names of the four archaic Greek winds is uncertain.The final step, completing the circle, was to use the proper names of the winds to denote general cardinal directions of the compass rose.

It is probable that for ancient settled populations, local physical landmarks (e.g.

mountains, deserts, settlements) were the initial and most immediate markers of general direction ("towards the coast", "towards the hills", "towards the lands of Xanadu", etc.).

Phoenicias (φοινικίας) comes "from Phoenicia" (to the southeast of Greece) and Thrascias (θρασκίας) from Thrace (in Aristotle's day, Thrace covered a larger area than today, including the north-northwest of Greece).

The implication of reading Thrascias and Meses as half-winds, and the others as principal winds, is that this implies Aristotle's construction is asymmetric.

East is referred to as kedem, which derives from "edom" ("red"), and may be a reference to the color of the rising dawn, or the red sandstone cliffs of the Land of Edom to the east; North is referred to as saphon, from Mount Zaphon on the northern edge of Syria, South is often negev, from the Negev desert to the south, and West is yam ("sea", meaning the Mediterranean Sea).

Astral phenomena were used to define four cardinal points: arctos (ἄρκτος, "bear", the Ursa Major, for North), anatole (ἀνατολή, "sunrise" or eos "dawn", East), mesembria (μεσημβρία, "noon", South) and dysis (δύσις, "sunset" or hesperus, "evening", West).

So, seen this way, Aristotle really has an asymmetric windrose of ten winds, as two winds are effectively missing or only local.

Old Boreas is mentioned only as an alternative name to Aparctias (ἀπαρκτίας), which means "from the Bear", that is, the Ursa Major, the Arctic circle.

Among tentative propositions is that Boreas might come from "boros", an old variant of "oros" (Greek for "mountains", which were to the north geographically). 10 BC) notes that some contemporaries took Homer's ambiguity to imply that the Homeric system may already anticipate the summer and winter distinction later made famous by Aristotle.

This refers to the fact that the "east" (sunrise) and "west" (sunset) are not stable on the horizon, but depend on the season, i.e.

Hesiod refers to other "bad winds", but not by name. 400 BC), in his On Airs, Water and Places, refers to four winds, but designates them not by their Homeric names, but rather from the cardinal direction from which they blow (arctos, anatole, dusis, etc.) He does, however, recognize six geographic points - north, south and the summer and winter risings and settings - using the latter to set the boundaries for the four general winds.

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